Testing With Intent: Descriptive Test Naming

Why Naming Matters

Naming is hard. Of course it is. But, if you’re writing tests, you have to name them. Why not make it a good name? One way to think of testing is “using test code to describe what the implementation code does”. The test name is “using plain language to describe what the implementation code does”. A third description of what the implementation code should do.

Giving our test a descriptive name is more work up front, and feels redundant. But, when the new developer abandons us to their botched refactor, we have three descriptions of what the code should do. We have the test assertions. We have the test name. And finally, we have the implementation code. If we only had two descriptions, how would we tell which is correct? By having three descriptions we can look at the two which agree, and figure it out.

What Makes A Good Test Name?

A descriptive test name is a description of the implementation, in plain language. The test should express a single specific requirement. So the name should also.

A descriptive test name should include the expected input, or setup state. It should include the subject we are testing, or the action we are taking. And, it should include the expected result. These three stages are identical to the “Arrange/Act/Assert” trio from earlier. We can divide the test into three sections. First, arranging the input and state. Second, performing some action. Third, observing and testing the result.

It’s not a coincidence that this pattern shows up again. These three stages are what we need to specify some software’s behaviour. By putting all three in our test name, we can fully describe our expectations.


For these examples I’ll be using an imaginary test framework, similar to Mocha for Javascript. Mocha provides string-based test names, along with nested setup. However, I’ve changed a few of the Mocha function names to smooth out the examples. Mocha is very similar to test frameworks in other languages, such as RSpec in Ruby. If your testing framework uses function or method names, then the naming examples will need converting.

BDD-style Naming

Because BDD is all about communicating requirements between technical and non-technical stakeholders, they tend to have a lot of structure. BDD-style test naming is often broken down into 3 “stages”. First, is the “Given” stage, where we define our preconditions. Then the “When” stage, where we describe the action we are taking. Finally, the “Then” stage where we state our expectations. These stages are identical to the Arrange/Act/Assert trio we saw earlier in the series.

For example:

Given I am logged in
When I save a new post
Then the new post will appear on my blog

Let’s break this down.

  • Given I am logged in

    Our arrangement. So, for this test setup we need to create a user, and log in as them.

  • When I save a new post

    Our action. Write a new blog post, and save it.

  • Then the new post will appear on my blog

    Our assertion. We should load the user’s blog (or only the database query), and check the post has been saved.

Because the BDD-style test description starts from a user story, it is immediately understandable to non-developers. Though, they will need some familiarity with the software’s domain. Imagine trying to write a fluid-dynamics simulation test with no physics knowledge!

given("I am logged in", function() {
  let user;
  beforeEach(function() {
    user = createAndLogin();

  when("I save a new post", function() {
    let newPost;
    beforeEach(function() {
      newPost = saveNewPost();

    then("the new post will appear on my blog", function() {
      const myPosts = loadMyPosts();

Like in this example, these test descriptions work best for high-level, end-to-end or integration tests. High-level tests often have lots of setup, so frameworks like Mocha and RSpec with nested description-blocks are quite helpful.

With a simpler testing package (like in Go), we could name this function:

func Test_LoggedIn_SaveNewPost_AppearsOnMyBlog(t *testing.T) {
  // Arrange
  var user = CreateAndLogin()

  // Act
  var post = SaveNewPost()

  // Assert
  var myPosts = LoadMyPosts()
  if !myPosts.Contains(post) {
    t.Errorf("Expected new post to appear on my blog")

We still get the same descriptive test naming. But, if we have many test-cases we will be forced to duplicate some test-setup.

Property-Based Naming

While BDD-style testing works well for high-level features, and integration tests, it is too onerous for isolated unit-tests. In that case, a much simpler naming scheme is needed.

Part of the beauty of the BDD-style naming is that it mirrors our Arrange/Act/Assert pattern. With Unit tests we can follow the same. But, instead of using user-story-style phrases, we can be direct:

describe('Array', function() {
  describe('#indexOf()', function() {
    it('should return -1 when the value is not present', function() {
      assert.equal([1,2,3].indexOf(4), -1);

This test name (taken from the Mocha docs) clearly states that we’re testing Array#indexOf. Our preconditions (that the value is not present), is included. And our expectation is that the function returns -1. Even if all we saw was the test name (maybe in a failing CI build), we know exactly how the code is broken. If we are not sure what the code is supposed to do, we have three references for what the code should do. We have the test assertions. We have the test name. And finally, we have the implementation code.

As above, if your test framework doesn’t support test names this verbose we could rework the test name, to fit Act_Arrange_Assert. That would look like:

func Test_Array_IndexOf_ValueIsNotPresent_ReturnsNegativeOne(t *testing.T) { ... }


For more info and discussion, there are lots of fantastic test-naming patterns, in the discussion on Roy Osherove’s “Naming standards for unit tests”, including:

  • Unit_StateBefore_StateAfter
  • Method_Precondition_Postcondition
  • Act_Arrange_Assert

Ultimately, test naming is about making your own job easier in the future. BDD can help communicate requirements from non-technical partners. Property-Based naming can help communicate more technical low-level requirements. It is up to you to pick which works for you, and think through what your test is trying to express.